What is a caesarian section?

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A Caesarean or C-section is the surgical method of delivering one or more babies. In this method of delivery a baby using a surgical incision in the mother’s lower abdomen and also the uterus. There are cases when a C-section is scheduled in advance when there are any known complications. But in other cases, it’s done when an unexpected complication arises. It may be done with a spinal block such that the woman is awake and be with her newborn soon afterwards or under general anaesthesia. A urinary catheter is used to drain the bladder, and the skin of the abdomen is then sterilised. In low-risk pregnancies, there is a small increase in an adverse outcome with a C-section. They also typically take longer to heal from, about six weeks, than vaginal birth. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, about 33 percent of American women who gave birth in 2011 had a cesarian delivery.



The possibility of a C-section cannot be entirely ruled out no matter what type of birth plan you have or hope to have. A C-section need not always be a negative experience whether you are prepared for it or not. Most pregnant women have natural and normal delivery of the baby through vaginal birth or (birth canal). But in some cases, a C-section is required for the safety of the mother and baby.

What would all for a scheduled c-section?


In certain conditions, the need for a c-section for delivery is known even before a woman goes into labour. A C-section is required in cases where:

  • The woman who is pregnant had a previous delivery by C-section with a “classical” vertical uterine incision or more than one previous c-sections. Both of these significantly increase the risk that your uterus will rupture during a vaginal delivery.
  • If you’ve had only one previous c-section with a horizontal uterine incision, you may be a good candidate for a vaginal birth after cesarian, or VBAC.
  • If there was any invasive uterine surgery done for the mum such as a myomectomy
  • You’re carrying more than one baby.
  • In a scenario where the baby is very big. This is condition is called as macrosomia. This happens if you have diabetes or if you had a previous child of bigger size or a smaller baby who had a severe trauma at the time of vaginal birth.
  • If the position of the baby is bottom first (breech position) or if the baby is sideways (transverse position). In cases where the women in pregnant with twins, if the first baby is in head down position and the second baby is in breech position.
  • If you have a medical condition called placenta previa where the placenta is low in the uterus.
  • If there is any kind obstruction such as a large fibroid that would make a vaginal delivery difficult or impossible.
  • The baby has a known malformation or abnormality that would make a vaginal birth risky, such as some cases of open neural tube defects.
  • You’re HIV-positive, and blood tests done near the end of pregnancy show that you have a high viral load.

Why would call for an emergency c-section?

If problems arise that make it dangerous to you or your baby by continuing normal delivery or inducing labor in the following cases:

  • When the cervix stops dilating or the baby stops moving down the birth canal. If attempts to stimulate contractions to get things moving again, don’t work.
  • If the baby’s heart rate becomes a concern and the physician decides that the baby can’t withstand continued labour or induction.
  • If the umbilical cord slips through your cervix, then the baby needs to be delivered immediately because a prolapsed cord will cut off the oxygen supply to the baby.
  • Sometimes the placenta begins to separate from your uterine wall. This condition is called placental abruption, and this means that the baby won’t get enough oxygen unless immediately delivered .
  • There might be cases when the pregnant woman has a genital herpes outbreak when she goes into labour or in cases where the water breaks. It is possible to protect the baby from infection only by delivering the baby through a c-section.

What happens before a c-section?


First, your practitioner will explain why he believes a c-section is necessary, and you’ll be asked to sign a consent form.

An anesthesiologist will then come by to review various pain-management options. An epidural or spinal block will be given that will numb the lower half of your body. However, you will be awake and alert for the birth of your baby.

A catheter will be inserted into your urethra, and this helps to drain urine during the procedure. An IV will be started if you don’t have one inserted already. They will remove some of the pubic hair, and you will be moved into an operating room. You may be given an antacid medication to drink before the surgery as a precautionary measure if an emergency arises for general anaesthesia. You’ll probably be given antibiotics through your IV to help prevent infection after the operation.

Risks of C-section


C-section is not a very risky procedure, and in most cases, both the mother and the baby (or babies) will be healthy and fine. However, it is a major abdominal surgery, and so it is comparatively riskier than the natural vaginal delivery. Some women develop an infection after their c-section. Other complications such as more postpartum pain, excessive bleeding, a longer hospital stay, blood clots and a longer recovery. Injuries to the bladder or bowel, although very rare, are also more common.